Distress signals, flares and EPIRBs
If you are in an emergency on the water and need help, you can use distress signals, flares and EPIRBs to show you are in distress.
Distress signals are used to show that you need help and require immediate assistance. The signals are internationally recognised and must only be used if you are in distress.
- Use your marine radio/signalling:
- 'mayday, mayday, mayday' in emergencies only
- 'pan pan, pan pan, pan pan' for urgent messages that aren't emergencies
- SOS in Morse code (using marine radio or another signalling method).
If other boats or aircraft are in the area, let off an orange smoke flare (daylight) or a red hand-held flare (night).
A v-sheet should be displayed to attract the attention of other boats or overpassing aircraft.
An EPIRB should be used as a last resort. Keep it turned on until help arrives.
Slowly and repeatedly raise and lower your arms outstretched to each side.
Continuously use sound signalling equipment for SOS.
- Display international code flags N over C.
Use flares to get the attention of other boats or aircraft in the area if you need assistance. In date flares must be carried on all boats and personal watercraft (PWC) that operate beyond smooth water limits, except tenders that don’t need registration. Both orange smoke and red hand flares are needed as part of the safety equipment for these boats.
Your flares must be in date. Flares have a life span of 3 years and must be replaced before they expire. The expiry date is printed on the flare.
Always read the instructions and make sure you understand the manufacturer’s directions before storing your flares on board your boat. Flares should be stored in a dry place where they will be easily accessible in an emergency.
There are 3 types of flares which are designed for day or night use. Effective ranges of flare in conditions of good visibility are:
||During the day|
||25 to 35 nautical miles
||Are red in colour and can be used during the day. |
|Red hand flare
||5 to 10 nautical miles
||Are red in colour and can be used during the day.|
|Orange smoke flare
||Very limited—visibility up to 1.4 nautical miles but better from the air.|
There are severe penalities for misuse of flares including—the cost of labour, risk incurred or loss sustained as a result of misusing flares.
Make sure you dispose of expired flares correctly.
An EPIRB is a small electronic device that, when activated in an emergency, can help search and rescue authorities pinpoint your position.
Once activated, EPIRBs continuously send out a signal for at least 48 hours. Search and rescue authorities respond to all EPIRB activations—you must only activitate the EPIRB in an emergency and you must tell them immediately if you no longer need help.
All boats and PWCs operating beyond smooth and partially smooth waters must carry a 406MHz digital EPIRB when more than 2 nautical miles from land.
- comply with th Australian Standards (4280.1:2003).
- be registered with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)—registration is free and must be renewed every 2 years. You need to tell AMSA when the EPIRB ownership or boat details change.
- have a registration sticker from AMSA on the beacon as proof of current registration.
Do not dispose of old EPIRBs in general waste as it will end up in landfill and could be accidentally activated. Battery World stores will dispose of your old EPIRBs.
Personal locator beacons are designed for personal use on land and water but they are not a substitute for EPIRBs.
Get more information about EPIRBs and distress beacons or read the frequently asked questions.
Quick safety tips
- Keep flares and EPIRBs in good condition and accessible at all times on your boat. You should clearly sign where safety equipment is kept on your boat.
- Make sure you know how to use flares and EPIRBs before you go out on your boat so you’re ready in an emergency.
- Check the expiry dates on safety equipment regularly and replace them before it expires.